Molecules are Composed of Atoms

At least this is a useful way to think of these entities that are so small and at such a relatively low level of organization that we (meaning the physicists) can’t see, touch or imagine precisely how they function.

But we can make a model that describes the things we know about how they function.

Atoms are made of mass and energy. Mass means they have weight (where there is gravity) and volume. On earth there are a little over 100 different kinds of atoms. The mass of an atom can be thought of as protons and neutrons that make up the internal portions of the atom. Protons have positive energy that attracts electrons. Electrons have negative charges that make up the outer portion of the atom where it can come in contact with other atoms. (These negative energies are very similar to minute units of electricity). Atoms with more protons also have more electrons because the opposite charges attract each other.

Different kinds of atoms are attracted to each other according to their different electron energies. If the energy attractions are strong, then different kinds of atoms can make energy bonds between themselves to form molecules.

A molecule is two or more atoms joined together with energy bonds that we can describe according to the following diagram.

Water is two hydrogens joined with one oxygen by energy bonds.
Carbon dioxide is one carbon atom joined with two oxygen atoms, CO2.

Energy bonds are not random. The innate energy characteristics of a particular kind of atom determine if it will bond and how it will bond with other atoms. This is another one of those laws of nature that humans can not control. We can change atoms around — we can bombard them and break them because we have powerful technologies, but we can not change the nature of the energy interactions. Energy interactions happen according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

That’s what we really need to know. We don’t need to know all about the physics of atoms and molecules to understand how living things are able to use these characteristics to flow energy through their selves.